Saturday, May 23, 2020

Project Management Questions - 4915 Words

Project Management 1. Define a) Project b) Project Management c) Process d) Resources e) Project Cost . Project Clear and accurate definition of a project is one of the most important actions you can take to ensure the project s success. The clearer the target the more likely you are to hit it. Defining a project is a process of selection and reduction of the ideas and perspectives of those involved into a set of clearly defined objectives, key success criteria and evaluated risks. This definition process should culminate in the production of a Project Definition document, sometimes called a Project Charter. The Project Definition document should be approved and issued by a manager with the authority to apply organisational†¦show more content†¦Here are the steps to planning: 1. Break-down project phases into tasks which can be assigned to individuals 2. Specify the calendar for resources and assign resources to tasks 3. Estimate task durations -- the length of time to complete the task. (Zero duration tasks automatically become Milestones) 4. Specify inflexible start or finish date constraints, if any. 5. Map predecessor dependencies start date constraints to specify extent of mutual overlap or inactive lag time dalay among tasks 6. Balance overload and underload conflicts Scoping: Requirements specified to achieve the end result. The overall definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish, and a specific description of what the end result should be or accomplish. A major component of scope is the quality of the final product. The amount of time put into individual tasks determines the overall quality of the project. Some tasks may require a given amount of time to complete adequately, but given more time could be completed exceptionally. Over the course of a large project, quality can have a significant impact on time and cost (or vice versa). Together, these three constraints have given rise to the phrase On Time, On Spec, On Budget. In this case, the term scope is substituted with spec(ification). 3. Explain the various phases in project management life cycle? Answer: This is the initial phase of any project. In thisShow MoreRelatedDiscussion Questions for Project Management1526 Words   |  7 PagesQuiz 7: Chapter 4: 1. This statement is true in that good leadership has the ability to inspire confidence and support among people who are needed to achieve common goals. 2. Also for a project manager leadership is the process in which they influence a team to get the job done effectively. The PM will hold everyone accountable which will in turn put out a good outcome. 3. Key differences between a manager and a leader is manager is a title given to someone which permits them to plan, organizeRead MoreQuestions On Project Management Office Essay952 Words   |  4 Pagesabout? This 4-week focused course in Project Management Office designed for those seeking to gain practical, hands-on project management office skills. It will cover the basic principles of project management, including getting started; project planning and risk analysis; as well as provide practical training in the use of MS project, Excel beginner to intermediate level and MS PowerPoint. The course is unique because it focuses on learning project management office by â€Å"doing†, rather than by â€Å"reading†Read MoreSoftware Project Management Quiz Questions1182 Words   |  5 PagesIT 2123 - Pre-Quiz Chapters 3 4 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. JWD Consulting’s core business goal is first presented in the ____ section of the business case. |a. |Critical Assumption and Constraints | |b. |Current Situation and Problem/Opportunity Statement | |cRead MoreQuestions On Project Management Concepts1809 Words   |  8 PagesPPMP20007 Project Management Concepts Term 1, 2015 Assignment : Report Lecturer: Jarvis Jacqueline Tutor : Ewin Natalie Prepared by : Student name: PATEL RITINKUMAR RAJUBHAI Student ID :S0266570 Course name: Master of Information Technology Course code : COIS20008 Answer 2 a) How long would the project take to complete? ïÆ'Ëœ 375 days b) What are the start and finish dates of the project. ïÆ'Ëœ Start date: 07/09/2015 ïÆ'Ëœ Finish date: 14/03/2017 c) List the tasks that are on theRead MoreQuestions on Project Management: Personal Experience1136 Words   |  5 Pagescompleted is a three to four sentence response to each question. The way this assignment works is we are all given the same question two questions to answer and then we must respond to at least two of our student’s responses to the question. So I am going to post the questions, followed by the responses from two of my class mates, in which I need a 3 to 5 sentence response, written. In all you will have done 4 responses, as well as answered the two questions, the response I need written is for the a and bRead MoreQuestions On Information Technology Project Management1942 Words   |  8 PagesTechnology Project Management 640Ses6Mid.doc SESSION 6 Mid-Term Exam Jun 28, 2015 Troy Jenkins 1. 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How well did you do it?’ Wysocki (2012, p.64) also added that; ‘In addition to answering the six questions that a valid project managementRead MoreImportant Questions on Project Management2882 Words   |  12 Pages* Question 1 5 out of 5 points | | | Organizational culture is best explained as organizationalAnswer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   Ã‚  Ã‚  Personality | | | | | * Question 2 5 out of 5 points | | | _________ organization is a hybrid form in which a horizontal project management structure is overlaid in the normal functional hierarchy.Answer | | | | | Selected Answer: |   Ã‚  Ã‚  Matrix | | | | | * Question 3 5 out of 5 points | | | The Macintosh developmentRead MoreQuestions and Answers on Project Management1248 Words   |  5 PagesProject Management Paper Name Institutional Affiliation Date: Project Management Paper What is a project? A project refers to an intended outcome requiring the implementation of a series of actions conducted in a uniform sequence of events. 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Monday, May 18, 2020

Newspaper Synopsis Architect System - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 22 Words: 6577 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? A. Project Title. Newspaper Synopsis Architect System B. Brief description on project background. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Newspaper Synopsis Architect System" essay for you Create order (.i.e. problem context, rationale, description of problem area, nature of challenge) Newspaper plays a major role in shaping public opinion during any incident. Newspaper provides information on politics, economics, art, culture and entertainment and in the current panorama of the media every newspaper organization is representing all significant news with a Graphical Synopsis, as it increase the readership of the newspaper organization and for doing so every time newspaper organization has to contact the graphical designer and they take a huge amount of money for creating the synopsis which bounds the newspaper organization and ultimately it results in the waste of resources for the newspaper organization. Moreover, Newspaper design is well known as a key factor in readership. Every article in the newspaper must be properly expressed and placed to give reader the joy of logical comprehension. The current era bursting with superior newspaper organizations facing each other and also with the potential readers with broad mind and great thoughts giving challenge to thos e organizations through their hunger to gain knowledge with demanding good presentation of the information. The presentation of the newspaper is very artistic job as it can burn up the minds of the crowd. The job in the current scenario is very complicated and essential. The designing procedure of any news paper is very hectic and time consuming job. Right from deciding the content of each page to the printing there is a huge labor and man power involved. The persons involved in designing procedure need to be taken care as they have a lot load and decisions to make about many things before publishing the news. The problem context above requires an integrated tool which can help the newspaper organization in generatin Graphical Scenes without including the graphical designers by utilizing resources inside the organization which will save there time and money. The tool will help in many ways and could turn out to be a revelation for the organizations and also for the employees. This is the core Information Technology task to transform the complicated work in to a simpler job and for pursuing this task I am proposing the newspaper designing tool Newspaper Synopsis Architect System. The tool is a complete package to assist newspaper designers in efficiently performing their job. Rationale: Because of the existence of the identified problems, there is a serious need for creating such a tool. BasicallyNewspaper Synopsis Architect System will be having two major modules. First one will be Synopsis Architect Systemwhich has library that will contain already designed graphics/scenarios based upon the crime which can be edited by the designer person such as a terrorist attack, a murder, a bank robbery, bomb blast, any type of serious accidents, etc. Newspaper Synopsis Architect Systemwill be used to create graphical scenarios for such incidents. Moreover, there will be tools available like color picker, color fill, different shapes, adding text, adding picture, adding lines etc. that will help the person to edit and design the crime scenario/cartoons etc The second module of the system is Newspaper Architect System which will assemble the news and articles and help the news paper designers to generate the prototype ready to publish. The software would generate the prototype of the news paper and any computer literate can use the software to just fill in the news by browsing the contents. The designer can fill in the details as per the appropriate sections available within the software such as the front page, editorial page, sports page etc. The designer would also have the option to set priority to the news i.e. what will be the main headlines, which news is not of much importance etc. All the sections of the prototype will be editable providing the designer with the option of changing the priority and position of a particular headline anytime he/she wants thus making the software very flexible to use. The prototype generated will also have the option to include various advertisements. The positioning of the advertisement would be done by the tool itself based on the size and the news associated with it. There will also be an option to edit the visibility of the advertisement i.e. which advertisement must be highly visible so as to be placed as a header etc. The most distinct feature of the tool would be the use of templates. There will be ready made templates available within the software for special occasions like Hariraya, Diwali, Christmas, and Chinese New Year etc. The user will just have to choose a template from a list, fill in the details and the paper would be generated. The benefits gained from this project are: Tangible benefits: Newspaper organization will be able to create scenarios for all kind of incidents without any extra efforts. Role of the graphical designer becomes almost zero as anyone from the organization after a short training can use the tool and can create the scene very easily. Newspaper Synopsis Architect System Saves the resources of the organization in terms of time and money and effective use of the resources present in the organization It is a packaged integrated tool which can do the task of many different tools. The designer can also edit the previously saved scenarios and can save the scenario in various file formats such as JPEG, PNG, GIF, etc. This tool offers flexibility and extendibility- user build the scenario by selecting those templates that are relevant to their disciplines. The newspaper organizations would have the opportunity to generate the user acceptable designs to represent the news without wasting much resources and efforts. The placement of the news articles can be decided very easily as a simulated blank newspaper will be present for developing the design. The tool going to be developed will be very flexible, it will allow users to make the changes in the final design; users can add some important news by deleting or shifting some non essential news etc. The generated designs can be uploaded on the server to circulate among the organizations different departments and also on the website to launch an E-paper which exactly simulates the original newspaper for the internet readers and ultimately increasing the number of readers. The proposed system would be a tool to assist the design editors and subordinates to make their job simpler and effective and ultimately increasing the level of output for the organization. Provide templates that incorporate effective instructional strategies. Intangible benefits: The newspaper organizations using the tool obviously on better edge as compare to their competitors still doing the manual labor. The designs can be made one day advance and organizations can check out the feedback prior to publishing. Description of Problem Area: The major problems Newspaper Synopsis Architect System is going to address are: Newspaper provide information on politics, economics, art, culture and entertainment with a pictorial representation but in some cases it is not possible for them to arrange original photographs for some incidents which occurs at very remote places or the incident such as a terrorist attack, a murder, a bank robbery, bomb blast, any type of serious accidents, etc. Generally newspaper organization hires graphic designers for creating the graphical scenario which is the only choice for the newspaper persons for making the graphical scenario. The graphic designers take huge amount for creating the graphical scenario and also consume much time for creating a single scenario as they use different multimedia tools. For creating a single scene different tools are required such as for making the graphics CorelDraw is used then for giving effects in that graphics and producing backgrounds Photoshop is used. Previously created scenario cannot be reused as it cannot be edited. The Newspaper Synopsis Architect System will be the tool for making the newspapers; thus it needs to be full with all possible article designs (article templates). The Newspaper Synopsis Architect System will need to be complete in itself thus it need a very thorough understanding of the procedure of the news paper publication and also a good technical knowledge. To maintain the flexibility of the system it needs a proper guidance as news publication job and paper designing job is not much known to a non media person. The need is to create a suitable structure comprising of the appropriate components for making a good system. The framework is crucial as it could be used for different publications and brands as per the respective environments. The establishment of the framework will require in-depth understanding of some of the theories or concepts manifested in some technologies. For example theories of providing template require technologies such as CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) and its associated algorithms are essential to ensure highly reliable software. The current process of creating the scenarios is not so flexible. Target Audiences User is one of the main concerns on how and why a system is been developed, for this current system, the target users have been categorized into two types: The software is mainly focusing on the organization engaged in printing and publishing the news paper. It can also be used by organizations publishing monthly or yearly newsletters. Moreover it is introduced for the newspaper media persons for creating graphical synopsis for different types of incidents and also for creating cartoons required in there newspaper or magazines. On the other hand, the tool could also be used by general computer user for creating the scenario of any type of incident. Nature of challenge Newspaper Synopsis Architect System has challenges in all sorts of categories. The primary challenge is to propose an integrated system for creating Graphical scenarios for various incidents. Since the tool is the very first of its type, so making it very user friendly, interactive and attractive is also one of the challenges. The next developmental challenge is creating a major generalized library that will contain many types of graphics that will be suitable for creating graphical scenarios for any kind of incident. Giving various editable options to the graphics and representing the graphics in such a way that it will give the realistic view of the incident is another challenge. The challenge is to prove Individual templates for different type of typical scenario and for generating prototype, allowing the user to easily incorporate a variety of multimedia elements such as graphics, interactive questions, etc. The next challenge in building this system is to replace the conventional designing procedure which will employ better technologies to improve on the features of existing system of news paper designing. Providing a better system for complete prototyping before publishing, thorough research is needed. The challenge is to make an efficient algorithm for better utilization of the space available. Since the domain of the project is very new to me as all the procedures inside the newspaper organization is considered confidential and I need to learn about it before starting or even thinking about the technical aspects. C. Brief description of project objectives. (i.e. scope of proposal and deliverables) Newspaper Synopsis Architect System is a newspaper designing and content management tool and it is ought to wrap the trouble areas that I have opened in the preceding section. The system is being shaped to offer the newspaper producers with the glowing layout and integrated information so as to permit them to obtain proper output. Moreover the system can help in increasing the qualities of the product for the graphical designer, newspaper manufacturers and ultimately get the organization benefited. At the end of the project the deliverables are: Soft cover documentation of the system Hard cover documentation of the system A prototype of the system application on CD The Core Main Functionality of the system The main objective is to make full use of the resources and tools available, in order to come up with All-in-one scenario creator tool that meets the user or clients requirements and which is user friendly, interactive and attractive and gives graphical representations of information or Knowledge. To develop graphing software which represents the information in the form of lines, boxes, arrows, and various symbols and representing a concept, objects, activity, place or event by illustration. Tool that allows the user to create graphical synopsis which are used anywhere where complex information needs to be explained quickly and clearly, such as signs, maps, journalism and education and also used to show graphical scenario of the weather, as well as maps and site plans for newsworthy events, and graphs for statistical data. Individual templates need to be designed for different type of typical scenario and the template that allow the user to easily incorporate a variety of multimedia elements such as graphics, interactive questions, etc. the user would select the templates that apply to their discipline or particular case, and use them as building blocks to create an entire scenario. Instructional guidelines on how to develop the scenarios using the input tool and templates. The core idea is to build completely utilization of the assets and tools accessible, in order to approach a complete newspaper designing tool that assembles the user or clients necessities and also supplies a user friendly, interactive and attractive representation of information or Knowledge. To develop designing software that characterizes the information in the form which readers actually require. To make a software gadget that permits the newspaper designers to generate newspaper prototype ready to publish and also increasing the quality of journalism and education. Individual templates need to be designed for different type of news articles and the template that allow the client to effortlessly incorporate a variety of elements such as providing coloring, interactive data representation feature, etc. the designers just need to pick the templates that pertain to their discipline or choice, and use them as building blocks to create an entire prototype for the newspaper. To guide the designers on how to develop the newspaper prototype using the input tool, templates with applying the experts knowledge. Core functionalities included in the Newspaper Synopsis Architect System: Synopsis Architect System: Templates: This part of the system includes various types of Individual templates with different categories for creating different type of typical scenario and also include sample scenario of each category. Template Categories:- Crime Scenarios Terrorist attack Murders Bank robbery Bomb blast Hijack Accidents Entertainment Comics General Scenarios 3. Inbuilt library:- This part of the system includes a library that contains collection of stencils and different stencils include various graphics related to the incidents that generally occur in our day to day life. 4. Search Shapes: Search option provides powerful search capabilities to locate the right shape, located in the library. 5. Graphic Editing: User can edit the graphics as per his or her requirements with the editing options such as rotation handles for rotating the graphics, Selection handles for resizing graphics(can be resize to any extent), etc. 6. Add text to graphics: Although some drawings make a point all by themselves, its often helpful and sometimes necessary to add text to the shapes. Text can be added and related to the shapes easily. Newspaper Architect System: 7. Article Templates: This part of the system comprises a range of category in arranging articles of the news with particular template providing sample of each type. Example Article Template Categories:- Single column news with space for graphics space for picture Multiple column news with space for graphics space for picture space at left space at centre etc News with special watermarks 8. Toolbox: It will Includes various design generation tools like tables, color picker, different geometrical shapes, etc. that makes easy to design the newspaper that fulfills the user presentation and documents. 9. Image Generation: the prototype of the newspaper that will be designed by the designers will be saved as image format. FAQ and Help A long list of Frequently Asked Questions regarding the tool will be available for the both major module. A help file system is also included in case the user has problems using the system. Enhanced functions- Additional Features Synopsis Architect System: Making own library: User has the option to create their own library and can save the graphics created by them in the library and can also import images from outside into their library and can use the images while creating the scenario. File formats: Allows saving the scenario in different file formats such as JPEG, PNG, GIF, etc. Grid size and ruler measurements: Scale measurement is provided for scenario the scenario creation. Privacy: The system will provide a privacy option where the user can secure the scenario created by him/her, so that no other person can edit the scenario without the permission of the scenario creator owner. Sample Scenarios: Provides sample scenarios that are integrated with data to get ideas for creating your own scenarios, to realize how data provides more context for many diagram types, and to determine which template the user want to use. Sample video clips: User will be provided with sample video clips of how to design a scenario so that it becomes simpler for first time user for creating a scenario. Newspaper Architect System: The Tool would be a completely generalized one where all the functionalities will be according to the needs and environment of the organizations. Inbuilt library of Prototypes: This part of the system includes a library that contains collection of different generalized prototypes for the newspaper includes a variety of sample news articles placed at appropriate place. Special Features-Advanced Features: Synopsis Architect System: Toolbox Module: Includes various drawing tools like pencil, color picker, color fill, different shapes, etc. that makes easy to design new graphics that match the user presentation and documents. Email: Provides the facility of emailing the scenario directly. Customizability The system will enable a certain level of customizability, for example, while writing the text in the scenario, user can choose English (Malay alphabets included), Chinese, Tamil and Hindi as per requirement. Newspaper Architect System: The Newspaper Architect System would offer for the backup of the server data so that the collated data can be used in future and also this would help in building tenable software. The companies can amalgamate their own prototype of the newspaper from the available options and can save it for regular use. The designers would be able to upload the common pages of the generated prototype of the newspaper on the web server so as it can be distributed to the different branches of the news publications easily. It will be very flexible system as it provides the option to edit the generated prototypes and customize as per the need. Newspaper Synopsis Architect System is thought to be a generalized software tool and to permit maximum customization of the features according to the needs of the newspaper organizations need is the main objective of the system. Limitations of the scope: For this Synopsis Architect System tool, parameters are set to limit the scope of the project only for the solutions and functions mentioned above, in other words, functions which are not listed above will not be implemented or included in the system, it is to be reminded that these possible features or functions will also not be included in the system as well: System is not platform independent, as I am choosing .Net as the programming language for my system so it can be run only on the system with windows as the operating system. Newspaper Architect System is a newspaper designing tool and the libraries of templates I will create not necessarily considered to be complete as the articles of the newspaper are very much dynamic in nature. Newspaper Architect System is just a designing assistance tool and it wont be able to create the prototypes dynamically; it needs someone to use it and integrate his human knowledge with its theory based principles of designing. Newspaper Synopsis Architect System is thought to be a software system of its own and when the tool would be used by the organizations there would be no means to assimilate the system with any other system being utilized by the organization. Though, the newspapers organizations can have their own software or system to use the composed designs for other applications. Newspaper Synopsis Architect System wont supply for this requirement. Other learning objectives: Synopsis Architect System is the very first of its type, so by doing this project I will have to research for various other graphic designing related domains and doing this would be a benefit for me in the future. Till now I was just using the various designing tools but now my task is to develop a tool that should be user friendly, interactive and attractive and that will be a great opportunity and a good learning experience for me. Newspaper Synopsis Architect System encompasses a distinctive sphere i.e. News Presentation and Publication; by doing this project I will have to explore for this sphere and this would supply me a prospect to discover and investigate the Publication Medias news representation policies and this would be an advantage for me in the future. Developing library based systems is not new to me but bearing in mind the generalization need of the system, I will have an occasion to discover the issues permitting me to explore the potential of this area. The tool being projected is to have a bunch of features of a variety of classes such as templates and various color schemes, default prototypes and so on. To incorporate these features together into a system is going to be a good learning experience. I believe that this project could be built with the .net framework and to learn and tap the vast prospective of this expertise would compose me more rationalized and resourceful professional. D. Brief description of the resources needed by the proposal.(i.e. hardware, software, access to information / expertise, user involvement etc.) Newspaper Synopsis Architect System is being anticipated as a Library based system and in addition its domain is practically distinctive and dissimilar for a computer science student and thus I would require a lot of study and understand the domain. For the development of this tool I will need to meet people from a variety of backgrounds and fields. The planned system is paying attention on the implementation of IT to reduce the job complexity of the printing media and thus I require to have a comprehensible perceptive of both the fields. In order to understand the graphical designing, printing policies and principles of the media, I am planning to interrogate the news editors and designers. These interviews would be paying attention at discovering how IT can be used to assist the experienced design editors talent and moreover how can I reduce the complexity with enumerating the job efficiency with accuracy and precision. To recognize the potential and the expectations of the educational institute from the proposed system, I am planning to interview some of the students and lecturers involved in publication of the college news letter. I would like to discover suitable information via the data gathering techniques such as questionnaire and Interview. Hardware Requirements: Microsoft Windows XP Service Pack (SP) 2 or later or Microsoft Windows Server 2003 (or higher) required 500 megahertz (MHz) processor or higher 512 megabyte (MB) RAM or higher CD-ROM: 52X CD-Rewritable drive DVD-ROM: 8X DVD drive Minimum 800600; 1024768 monitor resolution or higher recommended Keyboard and Mouse Software Requirements: In order to carry out the development of this project, many software are needed, these include Microsoft Windows XP, which shall be the operating system for the project to be developed; authoring tools such as Adobe Photoshop, visual studio.net 2005 and Macromedia Flash will also be needed in order to come up with the interactive user interface and objects. List of software required for the project: Net framework visual studio.net 2005 crystal reports(built in with visual studio.net 2005) CSS(Cascading Style Sheet) OS-Microsoft Windows XP professional. Microsoft Expression studio. Adobe Photoshop 7.0 Macromedia Flash 8.0 Corel Draw 11 Access to Information and Expertise Newspaper Synopsis Architect System is the very first of its type, so for developing it I need to do a lot of research. In order to gather the sufficient and necessary information prior to the project, some resources will be needed, these resources may be people from different backgrounds, or reference books. In terms of gathering information from people and expertise of that particular area, face to face interviews and questionnaires are both sufficient methods. Because of that, certain people to be interviewed are: Lecturers Lecturers obtain deeper understanding towards specific technical areas in terms of computing or design, interviewing specific lecturers who specialize in specific areas can be beneficial to the project. Media persons: Since the project is mainly developed for the newspaper persons, so a face to face interview with the newspaper persons who are concern with the graphic designing and printing publication in the organization would also provide me a better insight of the of the requirements for this tool and also gather more detailed information. User Involvement User involvement is the key concept in the development of useful and usable systems and has positive effects on system success and user satisfaction. To reduce the software project failure user involvement is must. The users involved are also the one that test the system, and gives evaluations. Following are the users involved: Supervisor Media persons Graphic designers Printing Publication persons Lecturers Friends or Course mates The other information or the data sets required: The industry principles are to be identified in advance to build up the application according to the standards for the designing of the newspaper. But I am not up to snuff to do so the application would fail in various environments which are definitely disagreeable. The different cyber regulations and commitments are to be recognized as the system has to deal with the newspaper presentation for the crowd so a dignity should be maintained. For the organizations whose staff I would interrogate, I would oblige their current designing techniques and formula and I may and may not use them for my project. E. Academic research being carried out and other information, techniques being learnt.(i.e. what are the names of books you are going to read / data sets you are going to use) In concerning about Newspaper Synopsis Architect System, research is much important for the system and thorough the research is, more are the probability of development of a practical and satisfactory application. The project has diversity of supplies and I would need support on various topics and from all kinds of the resources. I have to comprehend and discover the newspaper designing policies for enhanced understanding of the project. I necessitate gaining knowledge of the project management and software engineering techniques for supervision and construction the project in a accurate and corrective manner. I too have to discover the concepts and principles of the engineering. After having established what I need to know by defining the scope of what I need to find out and my research plan by determining how I can get the information, I must conduct my research now. Academic Research: The project requires a good understanding of the graphics designing and generating prototyping as the system contains an inbuilt library which will be the main concern of the tool. I also need to learn the project management and software engineering techniques for managing and building the project in a right and corrective way. Other academic research areas that need to be looked into are: Human Computer Interaction A study on HCI to determine and provide guidelines in designing the functionality of the system. Multimedia Design Principles A good multimedia system are developed by following the principles of a good multimedia design model, it is some what related to HCI. Programming Language There are many different types of programming languages available, according to the project needs, specific languages have to be chosen and learnt in order to produce the best result. Software Methodology Different types of methodology are to be reviewed and come up with comparisons between them, in the end the best methodology would be selected for the project. Technical Research: Approaching to the technical component as I have sensed that .net might be constructive for me, I necessitate learning the guidelines and techniques of the language. I need to learn CSS so as to build the acceptable templates. Moreover I have to research on the development of library based tools to develop a generalized, robust and reliable application. Domain Research: It focuses on topic area so I needed to research and look at some Newspaper and Graphics Designing system which generated the idea of how system has been done. I followed domain research by downloading HiTech Newspaper Management Softwareand compared with the requirements needed. Primary Research: Primary research (also called field research) involves the collection of data that does not already exist. Specific interviews and distributing questionnaire to some of the graphic designer and newspaper paper persons those concerns with the graphic designing and generating prototype in the newspaper organization will be essential in order to gather the correct and accurate information required. Information and resources Books: Software engineering: A practitioners approach Roger S. Pressman. A DISCIPLINE FOR SOFTWARE ENGINEERING WATTS S. HUMPHREY, THE ESSENCE OF COMPUTING PROJECT A STUDENTS GUIDE- CHRISTIAN W. DAWSON C#.Net (The Complete Reference) Herbert Schildt Professional C# 2005 with .Net 3.0 Christian Nagel, Bill Evjen , Jay Glynn, Karli Watson, Morgan Skinner Photoshop 7 (The Complete Reference) Seth GreenBerg XML: the complete reference Heather Williamson. Professional CSS: Cascading Style Sheets for Web Design CSS Cookbook By Christopher Schmitt HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION (2ND EDITION)- ALAN DIX, JANET FINLAY, GREGORY ABOWD, RUSSELL BEALE Website: https://www.w3schools.com/xml/ https://www.w3schools.com/ASPNET/default.asp https://www.developerfusion.co.uk https://metaprinter.com https://www.winpcware.com https://msdn.microsoft.com https://www.newsdesigner.com/blog/ https://www.brasstacksdesign.com/ https://www.ronreason.com/ https://www.dofactory.com/ https://www.csharpfriends.com/ https://www.iitb.ac.in/~cep/brochures/2005/asb-prmgt-bro.htm https://www.aurigalogic.com/auriga/avs/home/solutions/ecm/ https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms130214.aspx https://hcibib.org/ https://www.usernomics.com/user-interface-design.html https://www.codersource.net/codersource_dot_net.html https://www.techtutorials.info/wbmsnet.html https://www.totaltraining.com/prod/microsoft/expression.asp https://www.allgraphicdesign.com/graphicdesignarticles/newspaperadsgraphicdesign/newspapersdesigningtips.html https://www.orandadesign.co.uk/bristol-bath-graphics-print-stationery-design.htm This is just a tentative list and the figures may rise as the project progresses. F. Brief description of the development plan for the proposed project.(i.e. which software methodology and why, the major areas of functions to be developed and the order in which developed) Concerning about SDLC for the development of Newspaper Synopsis Architect System the Incremental model would be employed. Since I am initializing the project from the scratch although many of the requirements are known but realization of that is not done thus it is complex to recognize all the user requirements and its nature at the start. Through utilizing the Incremental model the developer has the compass to integrate the requirements after understanding it and thus can deliver reliable end product. The advancement of the project is not depending on severe scheduling; though it is depending on the reaction of the users instead. The model replicates an endeavor to boost the litheness of the development procedure by permitting the developer to interact and test through an operational illustration of the product. Incremental Model The incremental (multi-build) model determines user needs and defines a subset of the system requirements, then performs the rest of the development in a sequence of builds. The first build incorporates part of the planned capabilities, the next build adds more capabilities, and so on, until the system is complete Justification on the selection of this methodology Incremental model is an evolution of waterfall model. The product is designed, implemented, integrated and tested as a series of incremental builds. Incremental software development model is good to implement to the projects where: Software Requirements are defined, but understanding may be overdue. The basic software functionality are essential before time Product built as sequence of incremental builds each build a collection of code each build designed, coded, tested It provides a highly flexible development a lesser amount of cost required to alter scope and requirements. The product developed is easier to test and correct through a slighter iteration. It is easier to supervise risk since uncertain pieces are identified and handled during its iteration. Development Plan I enfolds the general procedure to several extra comprehensive tasks for the development plan, here is a listing of the plan with its probable durations: Start date: 8th December, 2008 Duration : 33 Weeks End date : 5th Aug, 2009 Project Definition Duration: 1 week Tasks: dea invention Project Title Selection Feasibility Studies Abstract Draft Project Proposal 2. Project Planning Duration: 3 weeks Tasks: Schedule and Time Estimation Project Proposal Form Requirement Analysis Duration: 12 weeks Tasks: Identify project specifications Project Background Resources required Techniques to be learnt Goals and Objectives Determine System Functionalities Identify scope of research Project Specification Form Investigation and Research Newspaper Designing software Graphic Designing software Other editing and designing tools Current scenario creating process Current news assembling and design process Programming language research Human and Computer Interaction Project management issues User requirements Analysis User Modeling and Profiling Domain analysis System analysis Risk analysis 4. Mid Point Presentation Duration: 1 week 5. System Design Duration: 5 weeks Tasks: Navigational Design Story Boarding Data flow Diagram Abstract Interface Design Screen layout Content Design Interactivity Design Functionality Design Prototyping Duration: 12 weeks Tasks: Creating Prototypes Evaluate Prototype feedbacks 7. Production and Implementation Duration: 8 week Tasks: Code generation Module Integration 8. Testing and Evaluation Duration: 6 weeks Tasks: Prototype Evaluation Test Plans Unit Testing Integration Testing System Testing Critical Evaluation Project Ending Duration: 4 weeks Tasks: Submission of the finished product Presentation The development plan listed above is the estimated one and most of the task will move on simultaneously and the estimated plan may have a little bit change in the time duration of the tasks. Major functions to be developed Starting with the Implementation phase, the major task will be developing a generalized inbuilt library for the proposed system which will consists of all types of general graphics, which will be used to create different types of scenarios for different types of incidents. After completing the inbuilt library part the main concern will be on the graphics editing section i.e. User should be able to edit the graphics as per his or her requirements with the editing options such as rotation handles for rotating the graphics, Selection handles for resizing graphics(can be resize to any extent), etc. The key factor for template in designing prototype includes general library for the proposed tool which includes a variety of different article templates, which will be applied to generate the prototype of the newspaper. Finishing the template library part the core concern will be on the prototype editing division i.e. User would be capable to revise / edit the generated prototype as the requirement changes. The nature of the proposed project is such that its Research and Analysis will be the hardest task in the complete project. Since the project needs to be generalizing thus high-quality research work will be required. G. Brief description of the evaluation and test plan for the proposed project. (i.e. what is the success criteria and how will be evaluated implementation will be tested, indicate the estimated size of the demonstration/test database) The guarantee for the quality of the end product can be judged by testing only; Testing is the course of exercising software with the purpose of discovering and extracting errors. Above mentioned essential obviously applied for the Newspaper Synopsis Architect System. The testing for the system will be essential at each phase as every time the prototype of the system will be created it needs testing. I will apply the conventional testing techniques so as to expose a lot of errors possible. During the development of this project, testing will be done from various phases and stages, opening from the early on phase of the development, until the very last part. These tests will be carried out by prototype tests, and also final system tests. The test plan/ test case that I will be prepare is based on the below mentioned points: Test unit specification. Features to be tested. Approach for the testing. Test deliverables. Schedule. Pass/fail criteria. The points for the test case diagram may increase according to the requirements after getting more knowledge of the tool. These types of testing are to be applied in the system: Unit and Integration Testing- The Newspaper Synopsis Architect System will be developed in different modules or units, based on these units, testing will be done individually, once the modules are tested, they are been incorporated for the integration testing. These testing will be performed by the developer and supervisor. Usability Testing- This testing tests the usability of the system, it reflects on the user interface design, familiarity, user acceptance and recoverability of the system. This will be performed by End user and supervisor. System Testing:Testing involves putting the new program in many different environments to ensure the program works in typical customer environments. In case of Newspaper Synopsis Architect System, complete testing of the system need to be done so that All-in-one authoring software can be developed. Tester: Developer Exploratory testing:Exploratory testing is a type of testing where tester does not have specifically planned test cases, but he/she does the testing more with a point-of-view to explore the software features and tries to break it in order to find out unknown bugs. A tester, who does exploratory testing, does it only with an idea to more and more understand the software and appreciate its features. During this process, he/she also tries to think of all possible scenarios where the software may fail and a bug can be revealed. The Assessment on Success Criteria are as: To evaluate on how successful a project is, these criteria are considered: Meeting user requirements- The project will considered as a successful project only if it convinces each solo necessities of the user/client. The evaluators are Supervisor and End users. Functionality It determines the functionality of the completed system. Each and every function of the system shall be assessed, such as the prototype generation of the newspaper. The evaluation will be done by Supervisor, End users and Developer. Usability- The assessment would be on Elements such as user acceptance, accessibility, familiarity and recoverability. The evaluators are Supervisor and End users. Level of Content- It assesses the amount of detailed and well presented information and content available in the system. The Evaluators are Supervisor and End users. Project Management It evaluates the ability to administer the project in a professional and orderly manner. The evaluation is done by Supervisor. Research and Analysis- It evaluates the superior sum of well explored research and analysis work is important to the success of a project. The evaluator is Supervisor. Documentation- The ability to come up with a documentation which is very well formatted and good English and grammars are used. Evaluator is Supervisor.

Monday, May 11, 2020

Undocumented Immigrants Should Be Legal - 949 Words

America is a nation of immigration but America also faces the problem of illegal immigration. In America the debate of whether undocumented immigrants should be able to get full amnesty is still a controversy. Even though illegal immigrants did make an illicit action, many see the United States as an opportunity for a better future. In addition, undocumented immigrants should be granted citizenship because it will benefit the United States. Creating an amnesty for the students will help the United States by improving the economy, create more jobs and decrease deportation. Granting citizenship to illegal immigrants will benefit the United States in the economy. Legalizing immigrants will help them earn more money than they already do. This means that immigrants will pay more taxes and consume more. When people start consuming more goods there is a higher demand, necessitating more jobs. Authorizing immigrants will allow them to pay federal taxes and state tax. Many immigrants already pay taxes only 30 to 50 percent of immigrants don’t report taxes. According to the Center for American Progress, immigrants don’t report taxes, because they â€Å"fear to get discovered and deported† (Lynch, 2013). Passing the reform will increase tax profit to $116 billion in federal and $68 billion in state and local taxes (Lynch, 2013). Increasing tax profit will benefit citizenship because taxes will decrease on each individual. Creating an amnesty for immigration will increase the United StatesShow MoreRelatedUndocumented Immigrants Should Be Lega l Essay1321 Words   |  6 PagesUnited States, some immigrants come for educational opportunities, but most of them overstay, and their visas got expired, so they became â€Å"undocumented immigrants.† Being an undocumented highly affects them financially especially in higher education. For them to pursue a college education they have to deal with a lot of problems such as lower college acceptance rates, and lack of work opportunities and for that, it’s difficult for them to pay for college. Undocumented immigrants should be able to receiveRead MoreShould Undocumented Immigrants Be Legal?1744 Words   |  7 Pagescultures, has a profound effect to level of stress an immigrant experiences in their new surroundings. These pressures become more and more apparent as an immigrant rises through the educational system. The 1982 Supreme Court decision in Plyler v. Doe guaranteed access to free public education for undocumented students. (Nguyen Martinez, 2015) The public debate that surrounds undocumented immigrants is often harsh and aggressive, predominately focusing on the economic burden on U.S. citizensRead MoreShould Undocumented Immigrants Be Deported?1196 Words   |  5 PagesShould millions of undocumented immigrants be allowed to live in the U.S without the fear of being deported and losing their families? Undocumented immigrants who move to the U.S to help give a better life to their families should not worry about being deported. Undocumented immigrants risk their lives crossing boarders, just to give their families a better life. Not all undocumented are rapists, drug traffickers or any of the other things Donald Trump has said about the undocumented immigrant.Read MoreThe Issue Of Illegal Immigration1519 Words   |  7 Pagesissue of illegal immigration. Unfortunately, some people confuse legal and illegal immigration. Legal immigrants are here legally. They have the proper, legal documents that allow them to live and work in the U.S. without complications. Illegal immigrants are defined as anyone who was born in a country other than the U.S. to parents who are not official U.S. citizens; they enter the U.S. without legal documents to prove their legal citizenship. Yet before the twentieth century, many individuals andRead MoreThe American Immigration System is Broken Essay923 Words   |  4 Pagessociety, immigration reform is enjoying an increasingly high voice among people. American immigration system is broken. Too many employers take advantage of the system by hiring undocumented workers which currently are estimated at 11 million. This is not good for the economy nor the country. Imaging a day without these undocumented workers in United States. No bus driver, farm worker, cooker, nurse, construction worker, waiter, house keeper, gardener or nanny can be found. Nobody drive bus, pick fruitRead MoreEssay on Dream Act for Dreamers1237 Words   |  5 Pagesto achieve their dreams. Some immigrants have real documents enter into the United States but some do not. Those people who do not have real documents are called illegal immigrants. Most of them made across the border enter into the United States. No matter what they are legal or illegal, all of them are here looking for a good life. Many different people from different countries come to the United States because America is a land of immigrants. Legal immigrants are properly becoming the UnitedRead MoreThe Benefits of Immigrants in the United States Essay1027 Words   |  5 PagesUnited States has experienced a large number of immigrants coming over to the country within the 2000s. In recent studies, there are about 11.5 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. The undocumented immigrant population has grown 27% between 2000 to 2009. Immigrants from Mexico mak e up 59% of the undocumented immigrants in the United States. These undocumented immigrants can help the economy and country grow. These undocumented immigrants do have some downside to them, which makes peopleRead MorePersuasive Essay On Immigration Reform1636 Words   |  7 Pagesimmigration reform in favor of undocumented 11 million immigrants in the USA, as well as a road map for their legal citizenship. It has also been suggested that a sub citizenship could be an option instead of providing full citizenship for the 11 million undocumented immigrants. The debate on the immigration reform has many dimensions which are important legally, morally, socially, culturally, and politically. Giving full citizenship or denying legal status to the undocumented could have implicationsRead MoreConsidering Children Of Illegal Immigrants by Frosty Woolridge ´s Article1062 Words   |  5 PagesIn one of her editorials, Frosty Wooldridge has written about how undocumented immigrants cost taxpayers colossal sum of money annually. Wooldridge holds that these undocumented immigrants give rise to offspring who become deeply bounded or rooted to this country and they in turn cost taxpayers a huge sum of money annually. Wooldridge’s editorial is one of the controversial discussions both at the congress level and the country at large. This argument is one of those that thwart or impede the implementationRead MoreThe Debate On Immigration Reform958 Words   |  4 Pagesfor Alien Minors, or DREAM Act, brought about legal, ethical, and logistical concerns. Illegal immigration and the population unauthorized alien in the United States were key issues in the ongoing debate on immigration reform. However, the benefits of this bill outweighed its disadvantages. Immigration policies in the United States concerning undocumented workers are strict and direct. Employers are not allowed to employ illegal or undocumented immigrants. The DREAM Act which was enacted by the Obama

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Theory A New Understanding Of The World Around Us

Social theory has three uses that illustrate ways in which we can use theories to develop a new understanding of the world around us. The three uses of theory are: intellectual, personal, and social/political. Intellectual involves ways of helping us sharpen our analysis on different situations, personal is when we use theories to explain events that happened in our individuals lives, and social/political describes how theories are used to challenge dominant ways of thinking, and creates new ways for political actions (Sears Cairns, 2010). By applying theory to our own personal experience, we are able to become familiar with different theorists and how their theories relate to our own individual experiences along with all of human society. Theory also challenges our common sense thinking, which is believed to be true even though our common sense thinking does not always predict reality (Sears Cairns, 2010). Through critical analysis of my own experiences, theories of hegemony, quee r theory, and the social construction of gender have reframed my understanding about several events of my life. As a teen, I was always an athlete. I played hockey, soccer, volleyball, and I still play rugby. I want to refer to the time that I was teased for being a â€Å"tomboy† by my classmates because I dressed in sweatpants, did not wear make up or nail polish, and did not perform feminine acts. Even going into high school, I would be asked if I was a lesbian due to my athleticism, which IShow MoreRelatedThe Learning Theory Influences Everyone s Culture, Ethnicity, Gender, And Social Status1605 Words   |  7 Pages The Learning Theory influences everyone’s culture, ethnicity, gender, and social status, by being from different geographical location and religious background everyone has a unique characteristic, when it comes to learning or problem solving. One of the most important events in a human’s life is the â€Å"Learning Theory†. This process takes place from the minute we are born. Information is taken in and absorbed, in turn builds one’s ability to retain what one has learned. Many factors aid in theRead MoreImplicit Personality Theory and Stereotypes1650 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to Baron, Byrne Suls in their book Attitudes: Evaluating the social world. (1989) they defined the term Social Psychology as â€Å"the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior in social situations†. (p. 6). There are many concepts of social perception, two of these that will be looked at in this essay are Implicit Personality Theory and stereotypes. Implicit personality theory describes the beliefs, biases and assumptions, that an individual usesRead MoreCultural Studies As A Discipline1269 Words   |  6 Pagesbetween the intellectual world and its environment having become blurred.† (p. 1-10).Ultimately, for cultural studies, what is necessary is that i t be able to define itself as a discipline and to provide social utility and relevance to those who use it. For Ang, cultural study is not only important, but necessary. Ang’s Argument Ien Ang (1999) has argued that â€Å"The origins of cultural studies in adult education rather than the academe are one indication of its fundamental social and political aspirationsRead MoreFor All We Think We Know About Crime There Is Still Much1085 Words   |  5 Pagesidea is the knowledge of control theory. This theory helps uncover what processes or environments lead to a life of criminal acts while at the same time it allows for a chance to learn about our world from a social perspective. It will be important to investigate what in fact control theory is, how it applies to the world in a sociological manner and to explore the implication of the theory in real-time crime. As children, we learn to avoid things that will hurt us whether it be an open flame or aRead MoreEssay on The Sociological Imagination1389 Words   |  6 PagesMy personal condensed definition of â€Å"the sociological imagination† is that it is the idea one should be aware of the societal structures around themselves, and how those structures can influence a person and vice-versa. In addition, I think that having a â€Å"sociological imagination† also involves a deep appreciation for the importance of society and culture. Consequently, for a person that has completed a basic introduction to sociology college course and actually paid attention, I would hope thatRead MoreThe Impossibility Of Religious Freedom1713 Words   |  7 PagesThe act of defining religion has been a contentious issue in a wide variety of situations, particularly in the United States. The US is a nation that prides itself on religious inclusivity and freedom. There are consequences to this belief and tenant. Through the social, legal and moral structures of the United States, defining religion has become imperative. In The Impossibility of Religious Freedom, Winifred Sullivan outlines the legal implications of defining religion in the United States. InRead MoreHow Do the Major Theories of Child Development (Known as the ‘Grand Theories’) Explore the Importance of Social Experiences?1675 Words   |  7 PagesHow do the major theories of child development (known as the ‘grand theories’) explore the importance of social experiences? Social experiences play a vital role in the development of children. Theories of child development have been created to help us to understand how children’s minds develop, taking into account the differences between cultures around the world. Some of these theories explore the possibility that children gain knowledge, develop new concepts and bridge new ideas through interactionRead MoreAnalysis Of Dalton Conley s You May Ask Yourself 1267 Words   |  6 Pagesidea of understanding yourself vs. understanding the social aspect of society, are some of the key concepts mentioned throughout this paper, to help break apart what the sociological imagination consists of. Society is changing a lot, and change can sometimes make it hard to cope with the world around us. Sociological imagination is a lot deeper than just common sense. Author of The Sociological Imagination, C. Wright Mills states, â€Å" Talking about sociological imagination is what makes us feel moreRead MoreLearni ng Value of Visual Arts -Ece832 Words   |  4 PagesPiaget’s Constructivism and Vygotsky’s Social Learning Theory. Art as mere creative expression has been the dominant theme for much of the twentieth century. However, researchers have been finding connections between learning in the visual arts and the acquisition of knowledge and skills in other areas. Art like text can be used as a source to practice critical thinking. Art can also be used to teach children about culture, traditions, history and even social issues. The process of creating artRead MoreSocial Constructionism, Identity and the Concept of Deviance Essay1409 Words   |  6 PagesSocial Constructionism, Identity and the Concept of Deviance Social constructionist use the term social construction to imply that our understanding of the world in which we live is constructed from the social interactions we have on a daily basis. In reference to identity, social constructionist theory (SCT) proposes that we as social beings actively construct our identities using social tools as the means in which to construct our identities, the foremost one being language. This particular

Luckily several months later my uncle informed Free Essays

Dear Academic Standards Committee, My name is Jung-Hyun Shin. Before I start to explain my rapid progression on a high school diploma program, I would like to draw your attention towards my dream career. Ever since I was little, I dreamt of becoming a professional hair stylist. We will write a custom essay sample on Luckily several months later my uncle informed or any similar topic only for you Order Now The state of California has plenty of professional hair academies and schools. However, most of them require a high school diploma. Unfortunately, the lack of a diploma was proving to be a big hurdle in reaching my ultimate dream. Luckily, several months later my uncle informed me that there is a really good online high school diploma program offered in the United States. After doing extensive research about this online high school program on Google and Yahoo!, I was quite convinced. I found several testimonies from students claiming that it was a legitimate way of earning a degree. Most testimonies concluded that the course was doable and students can finish the course quickly if they work really hard. Later, I signed up for this online high school diploma course, paid tuition in full and received all study materials/textbooks in the mail from school Since I was eager to start hair styling training school in the spring of 2009, I started studying almost everyday. It got to a point where I had only four to five hours of sleep a day. Since I don’t work, I put all my energies into studying for this high school diploma program. My dream career of becoming a professional hair stylist propelled me to go back to high school. The desire to enter Hair Training School in the spring semester was a source of motivation to study everyday. I wanted to earn a high school diploma in order to ultimately meet both admission requirements and an application deadline. Although I was not able to apply to the hair training school for the spring semester, I learnt an important lesson. â€Å"Happy are those who dream dreams and are ready to pay the price to make them come true.† Without having a dream career in my mind, I wouldn’t have made the decision to go back to high school to earn a diploma. Since I had a strict deadline in mind to finish a high school diploma course, I could finish several subjects rapidly. To put it simply, some courses such as Orientation, Human Relations, and Consumer Math were easier and took less time to complete because the questions asked in exams were very straightforward. However, some courses like Civics, American History, World History and Earth Science were rather challenging subjects for me. It was possible to finish Orientation and Human Relations courses in a day. However, the same was not possible for subjects like World History and Earth Science. It took several days and even several weeks for me to finish these subjects.    How to cite Luckily several months later my uncle informed, Papers

Communication Hierarchy & Structure of an Organisation-Free-Sample

Question: You should analyse the communication hierarchy and structure of an organisation or another situation if you have not worked in an organisation institution, club, charity, association, school or University in which communication is systemic. Answer: Introduction The present report is focused on Woolworths, a large Australian company with extensive retail market in Australia and New Zealand. It is the second largest company in Australia and New Zealand. The mission of the organization is to deliver the best in convenience, value and quality for the customers. Currently, the organization has a team of 205,000 members which serve more than 29 million customers, with different brands. It is a trusted business partner and has collaborations with a large number of local manufacturers and farmers. The strategy of the organization is to build a loyal customer base, and lead a store-led culture and team. The organization proposes to become a lean retailer through system excellence. The primary aim of the organization is to develop a retail team, which focusses on the customers, employees, as well as the suppliers. The organization has developed a specific climate for hard work and integrity. The company also provides opportunity for all the employees to grow within the organization as most of the senior leaders have grown from the shop floor. The strategy of the organization is focused on keeping the customers first. It has a diversified portfolio of business and includes several large brands such as Big W, Quantium and ALH. Each brand has separate board, which ensures delivery of high shareholder value. The business strategy of the organization is focused on five fundamentals, including the development of one team, refreshment stores, and, reducing the costs, develop cohesive brand and update product offering. The company has built a trustworthy relationship with the partners, which is based on three fundamentals, namely, collaboration, fairness and local sourcing of the products. All the relationships with the suppliers are underpinned on the mutual trust (Papa, Daniels Spiker, 2007). The company also engages in extensive market research to understand the needs of the customers. Each of the store is fully stocked and the companys brands are famous in all the households. The intra-organization communication is important in the success of the organization. The communication structure of the organization is important in establishing the communication in the organization. Evaluation of the communication hierarchy and structure The communication hierarchy and the structure are analyzed through the medium of a survey. The survey has been conducted with 100 employees working in Australia. All the employees are working at various hierarchy levels of the organization ranging from floor sales executive to sore managers. The different kind of communication strategies and methods used in the company significantly impacts on the service quality and the variety of services provided to the customers. It develops the core competency of the organization as well as impacts on the profitability of the organization. Leadership and Management Communication Style The communication is a significant medium, which can be used to influence the perception of others towards self. All the great leaders are great speakers. Moreover, in contrast to the personality traits, communication can be enhanced through training. The leadership influences the internal public communication in an organization. The transformational leadership makes use of the effective communication channels, employee satisfaction and symmetric communication to transmit their message (Scott Lewis, 2017). The use of face-to-face channels is highly associated with the employee satisfaction. Moreover, most of the employees prefer getting emails for receiving the information regarding the new decisions, policies, events, and changes. In ideal situations, they should be followed by the employee meetings and the interpersonal communication with the managers. The transformational leadership is a communication and leadership style in which the leaders try to create change in the organizat ion. The survey results have yielded that the leadership focuses on positive communication with the team members. All the major changes, policy developments and other organizational features are communicated to the employees through formal and informal communication. A positive organization climate is cultivated in the organization, which promotes transparent and positive communication between different team members. Figure: Leader focus on Development and Needs Team and Group Dynamics The most popular model for the formation of group is Tuckman model, which proposes that there are four stages of group evolution, namely, forming, storming, norming and performing. Later, another stage, called adjourning stage is added. The model further states that in order to facilitate a group, the leader has to move through various leadership styles at a single time. Initially, the leader remains directive, then he needs to serve as a coach, and later, his responsibility shifts to that of the delegator (Harris Nelson, 2008). In the formation of the group, the team members come together for the first time. At this time, there is formality, anxiety and guardedness. There is high level of uncertainty; therefore, the team members are polite, conflict avoidant, and observant. The storming is another phase, in which all the group members start to feel safe and incorporated within the group. They become more authentic and argumentative. The norming is another phase in which the team me mbers becomes aware of the market competition and work towards the success of the team goals. The performing is another phase in which, the employees are motivated and knowledgeable and becomes competent to achieve the goals of the organization. As per the survey results, the team dynamics and the group formation in the company are appropriate. The company focuses on developing a positive atmosphere in the organization. All the team leaders listen to their colleagues and team members. It is made to realize each team member that they are inclusive and an essential part of the team. Figure: Employer motivation Emotional Climate of the team The emotional intelligence refers to the ability of the team members to monitor or control his own and others emotions. It is the ability of an individual to differentiate between positive and negative effects of the emotions and use the emotional information to guide ones behavior and thinking. The emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive the emotions, manage them and use them for the personal growth (Miller, 2012). It is not only individual competency, but also group competency. The emotional intelligence is a skill, which can change the orientation of the team members towards the emotions. The team members can manage their as well as other team members emotions, if they have emotional intelligence. The team members should have emotional intelligence to handle the workplace conflicts and increase productivity in the organization. An empathetic atmosphere should be created in the organization, which should facilitate a social and emotional atmosphere in the organization (Ay oko, Callan, Hartel, 2008). When the survey respondents were asked about the emotional climate of their team, the respondents stated that they have a positive emotional climate. The team managers motivate the employees and inspire a positive culture. All the team members have strong bonding and they understand the emotions of each other and work to achieve the common goals. Oral and Written communication process According to the research findings, the oral and written communication processes have been well-developed and matured in the organization. There is a specific communication structure and all the employees follow it in the organization. All the major changes and the policy changes are intimidated to the employees with the help of written communication which includes notices and emails. Other than that, the employees also communicate with the help of chat software. It promotes informal communication between all the team members (Miller Borbour, 2014). In case of any doubt, they can communicate with the software instead of going through the formal procedure of writing emails. The written communication is often followed by meetings and one-to-one talks. When there is a significant change in policy or the operations of the organization, oral communication is used for making communication with the employees. Intercultural Communication The intercultural communication has a meaningful context for the workplaces in which people from different countries come together, identify with different ethnic groups who speak different languages to collaborate and develop relationships. The interpersonal communication is also important in the technology-mediated encounters, relationships and developing teams in the public and the private sector (Mumby, 2012). The intercultural communication policies are important to create a positive and supportive work environment in the organization. The organizations have developed several proactive policies to recognize the differences in the functional culture of the people. Therefore, the organization has developed a strong communication structure in the organization. Figure: Interorganization Policy Success of the Organization Communication Structure The organization has developed a strong communication structure in the organization. A transparent and easy-going communication structure has been created in the organization. The organization has developed several policies so that the employees can easily communicate with each other. Several software and communication channels have been established in the organization so that the employees can easily communicate with each other at different hierarchal levels. It can be perceived that the employees working at different levels technical fields often have different education backgrounds and work experience. It is quite different from the workers in the creative fields. It results in differences in communication. The engineers tend to think in a logical manner, whereas the marketing industry professionals are extrovert and intuitive (Putnam Mumby, 2013). There are several differences in different functional cultures, which can be addressed through education and proactive policies regar ding the legitimacy of different cultures. However, the work culture in the organization is highly competitive; therefore, there is need to implement more changes in the communication structure of the organization. There are different communication structures in different organizations. The decision to choose one communication structure is dependent upon the size of the organization. The chosen line of communication must facilitate accurate messaging, timely responses and timely completion of the work (May Mumby, 2004). The line of communication is important as it direct the employees to communicate within the organization. The line of communication will create less interaction with the employees and other co-workers. Other than that, the business also uses different communication methods, such as streamline reporting, using evaluation or reimbursement form, which established structure in the organization communication. There are also several restraints on the organization communication, which can prevent chaos resulted from high level of communication. It also reduces problem caused by the lack of communication between different organizations roles. The company has created strict communication line, which assures that the employees are not left out of the important communication. Conclusion and Recommendations The present research report is developed around Woolworths, which is one of the largest retail business organizations in Australia. The report evaluates the communication structure of the organization. It has been evaluated that the communication structure is well-developed and matured. A positive emotional climate is a developed in the organization. All the team members are considerate of the emotions if other employees. The team leaders are well-equipped with skills to handle the emotions of other people. A survey is conducted with the employees of the organization to evaluate the perception of the employees regarding the communication structure of the organization. The research findings have also identified other important factors in the communication structure of the organization. It includes that intercultural communication policy, team dynamics and the leadership communication. Effective communication is important in the organization as it will help in the product development, customer relations and employee management. The company can improve communication structure by establishing clear expectations for the employees as well as the customers (Putnam Mumby, 2013). It is important to convey to the employees how their performance will impact the organization and provide a positive feedback to the employees. It is also necessary to create strong relationships with the help of communication structure. The communication structure should be focused on meeting important needs, convey information and providing feedback to the employees (O'Sullivan, Smith Esposito, 2012). The organization communication should be able to foster knowledge, structure and positive work environment within the organization References Ayoko, O.B., Callan, V.J., Hartel, C.E.J. (2008). The Influence of Team Emotional Intelligence Climate on Conflict and Team Members Reactions to Conflict. Small Group Research 39(2), 121-149. Harris, T.E., Nelson, M.D. (2008). Applied Organizational Communication: Theory and Practice in a Global Environment. Taylor Francis. May, S., Mumby, D.K. (2004). Engaging Organizational Communication Theory and Research: Multiple Perspectives. SAGE. Miller, K. (2012). Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes. Cengage Learning. Miller, K., Borbour, J. (2014). Organizational Communication: Approaches and Processes. Cengage Learning. Mumby, D.K. (2012). Organizational Communication: A Critical Approach. SAGE. O'Sullivan, P., Smith, M. Esposito, M. (2012). Business Ethics: A Critical Approach: Integrating Ethics Across the Business World. Routledge. Papa, M.J., Daniels, T.D., Spiker, B.K. (2007). Organizational Communication: Perspectives and Trends. SAGE. Putnam, L.L., Mumby, D.K. (2013). The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Communication: Advances in Theory, Research, and Methods. SAGE Publications. Putnam, L.L., Mumby, D.K. (2013). The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Communication: Advances in Theory, Research, and Methods. SAGE Publications. Scott, C., Lewis, L. (2017). The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication, 4 Volume Set. John Wiley Sons.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Twains Effective Strategies Essays - Geography Of The United States

Twain's effective strategies Mark Twain's Life on the Mississippi is a story that follows a chronological order from beginning to end. The first chapter of the book begins with the historical background of the Mississippi River, which is the main focus of the story. The reason for providing the background information of the river is to let the reader have a better understanding of Twain's delight and awe that catches his imagination. Moreover, Twain uses effective strategies such as detailed description, verbal irony, and comparative devices to relate his own experience on the Mississippi River to the audience. Throughout the story Twain grabs the reader's attention through his detailed description of the different experiences that take place on the river. In chapter four, Twain describes a town before and after the steamboat arrives. "The white towns drowsing in the sunshine of a summer's morning; the streets empty, or pretty nearly so; one or two clerks sitting in front of the Water Street stores, with their splint-bottomed chairs tilted back against the walls?.but nobody to listen to the peaceful lapping of the wavelets against them; the great Mississippi, the majestic, the magnificent Mississippi?"(21). Twain's use of thorough description provides the reader with many details about the scene. The purpose of the details is to add the flow of the sentence, thus enabling the reader to resemble a concrete picture in their own minds. Later on in the paragraph the description drastically changes when the steamboat draws nearer to the dock. "Presently a film of dark smoke appears above one of those remote 'points'; instantly a negro drayman, famous for this quick eye and prodigious voice, lifts up the cry, 'Steamboat a coming' and the scene changes. The town drunkard stirs, the clerks wake up, a furious clatter of drays follows, every house and store pours out a human contribution, and all in a twinkling the dead town is alive and moving" (22). When the scene changes from a calm and relaxed morning to frantic excitement, not only does the description changes, but the sentence structure changes as well. The description of the steamboat arriving to the town contains more subjects and verbs; thus this makes the sentences more choppy and concise rather than long and flowing detailed descriptions. The shorter sentences have a different purpose than the longer sentences. The shorter sentences describe the action that is taking place and at the same time, it also brings out the atmosphere and the intensity the village people are going through. On the other hand, the longer sentences describe more in depth of the scenery and the people in the town. The different sentence structure devices transform the scene, and move it in a forward direction. This change allows the reader to mentally picture Twain's experiences. In the beginning of the story, Twain recounts the historical background of the Mississippi and the different explorers during the time period. In order to re-tell history, Twain uses verbal irony and humor in chapter four to amuse the reader. "La Salle himself sued for certain high privileges, and they were graciously accorded him by Louis XIV of inflated memory. Chief among them was the privilege to explore, far and wide, and build forts, and stake out continents, and hand the same over to the king, and pay the expenses himself; receiving, in return, some little advantages of one sort or another; among them the monopoly of buffalo-hides" (6). "In fact, all around, religion was in a peculiarly blooming condition: the Council of Trent was being called; the Spanish Inquisition was roasting, and racking, and burning, with a free hand; elsewhere on the Continent the nations were being persuaded to holy living by the sword and fire..."(4). This passage is filled with Twain's humorous descriptions of kings, religions, and explorers. In order to make the dull history more exciting, Twain uses his wit to lighten up the historical background of the text. His technique allows the reader to smile at his blunt and ironic humor. Twain's humor is considered to be ironic because of the satire he uses to write the history. When the reader hears the historical facts of the Spanish Inquisition being described as roasting and racking and